Updated 16 May 2014

WIRKSWORTH Parish Records 1600-1900

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Joseph RAYNES letters 1831-49

Joseph Raynes lived in Bonsall with 9 siblings (of whom 5 died in childhood). In 1831 he emigrated to Baltimore in Maryland, USA. but later moved to Cincinnati, Ohio because of bank riots in Baltimore. Joseph wrote regular letters home to his family in Bonsall, describing life in America. Eleven of these letters are held by University of Maryland. One dated 1838 is held by the webmaster and is described on this website. Joseph Raynes died in 1849 in a cholera epidemic, and is buried in Spring Grove Cemetery in Cincinnati.


01   Letter written by Joseph Raynes, in Liverpool, to his family, May 10, 1831
       addressed to Mr F. Raynes | Bonsall | Nr Wirksworth | Derbyshire
02   Letter written by Joseph Raynes, in Baltimore, to his family, Jul 06, 1831
       addressed to Mr Francis Raynes | Bonsall | Nr Wirksworth | Derbyshire | Old England
03   Letter written by Joseph Raynes, in Baltimore, to his family, Feb 04, 1832
       addressed to Mr Jacob Raynes | Bonsall | Nr Wirksworth | Derbyshire | Old England
04   Letter written by Joseph Raynes, in Baltimore, to his family, Sep 01, 1834
       addressed to Miss Ann Raynes | Bonsall | Nr Wirksworth | Derbyshire |Great Britain
05   Letter written by Joseph Raynes, in Baltimore, to his family, Mar 04, 1835
       addressed to Miss Ann Raynes | Bonsall | Nr Wirksworth | Derbyshire
06   Letter written by Joseph Raynes, in Baltimore, to his family, Apr 13, 1835
       addressed to
07   Letter written by Joseph Raynes, in Baltimore, to his family, May 14, 1835
       addressed to Miss Ann Raynes | Bonsall | Nr Wirksworth | Derbyshire
08   Letter written by Joseph Raynes, in Baltimore, to his family, Mar 24, 1836
       addressed to Miss Ann Raynes | Bonsall | Nr Wirksworth | Derbyshire | Great Britain
09   Letter written by Joseph Raynes, in Cinncinati, to his family, Jun 01, 1838
       addressed to Miss Ann Raynes | Bonsall | Nr Wirksworth | Derbyshire | Old England
10   Letter written by Joseph Raynes, in Cinncinati, to his family, Sep 14, 1840
       addressed to Miss Ann Raynes | Bonsall Nr Wirksworth | Derbyshire | Great Britain
11   Letter written by Joseph Raynes, in Cinncinati, to his family, Jul 24, 1843
       addressed to Mr George S Ward | at Mr Pidcocks | Olive Township | Morgan County | Ohio
12   Letter from Jayne Cliff to Harriet Raynes on the death of Joseph Raynes, July 14, 1849
       addressed to Miss Harriett Raynes | Bonsall nr Matlock Bath | Derbyshire

Joseph RAYNES papers
University of Maryland Archives

Letter 1

Liverpool May 10 Tuesday, 1831 Dear Father and Mother Brothers and sisters and Aunt and Uncle, I [w]rite to inform you I am now looking forward with great pleasure as Mr. Forbes calls it 'a nice [exertion?] on the sea to Baltimore.' I have engaged a birth [berth] in a vessel called the Russian-- it is a brig[.] a brig is not very large vessel but Forbes tells me they are the safest ships I could go in as this is a very nice one carries 300 and 50 tons[.] The name of the captain Simion Ryder He is a American captain it was him that I engaged to with I did not go to them Rouges at the American offices I saw the captain myself he will take me for Four Pounds. I must bord [board] myself[.] It will cost me about 7 [bb-I'm assuming this is an abbreviation for pounds] altogether why itís no more expense then a journey to London. Today is Tuesday. I expect to sail tomorrow or the next day. The captain was very friendly with me he asked me in his cabbin where very few passengers that go in the steerage are ever permitted to enter. We was talking a long time together as he had a brother a saddler in America he said he was doing very well but he his Ded [dead] now and has been some time Page 2 A part of the ship belongs to the captain. I ham [am] now in Privet lodgeings [private lodgings] and very comfortable. I have a room to myself and very nice clean sort of people they are. It is at Mr. John (?) (?) Hill Street North itís by. She was inside I saw Mr. Barrow last night. he tould me he should have sent you some work before now but thay as not been any shell in the market but he as got some now and he will help you to some very soon and I hope you will attend to it above all things tend to your own business as soon as I saw Mr. Barrow he says oh Mr. Raynes I was thinking about you the other day he asked me if I could do business in the ivory comb way in America or anyway in is way of business. I told him I would give it a trial. He tould me he would get some samples ready against [today?]. Itís all in my way of business JacobóI took tea with Mr. Forbes. Mr. Forbes and his wife she is a nice little creatcher [creature] she is a Laiday [lady] of [fullor?]. I think Mr. Forbes such a good hearted young man. I was taking tea last night two with Mrs. Forbes and she wishes aunt to look out for a good tempered girl as a servant one that is teachable She would make her like her own. She would not mind about her age if she was between 12 and twenty if she is good tempered thay is only Mrs. Forbes and a gent who is a Clergeyman and she keeps a little girl besides and she intends doing so as it will not be a hard place and I am sure Mrs. Forbes will make a clever woman of her if she will be a good girl. Page 3 She does not mind her being a poor girl is she is a good girl and a mild pleasant girl so you must write to Mrs. Forbes about this as she wishes to have a girl from the country as she will be perfect. I left (?) at Manchester. He did not get a situation will I was there but he had a promis. I go him lodgings with a person I know at (?) where I know he will be comfortable along with Needham than was (?) with (?) my fellow (?) and his mother. If Mr. (?) should enquire of him you can tell them where is Mr. Needham NH Hill Street (?). I saw Henry Frost. He was very well and very busy. He was looking very well. His regard to his friends of Bonsall. I am going to be busy looking up my raps today ready to take on bord of ship so tomorrow I am in better spirits then ever of my undertaking. I long to be on the sea. I will send you a paper where you will see the Russian entered for loading. She is a nice little brig and a new one if you see Mr. Greavel you can tell him what vessel I sailed by. I have no (?) to visit to him (?) as my letter would be of no use to him as I shall be gone so I must bid you all fair well. I am looking much better than I was at Bonsall. Sea air agrees with me. I conclude with my love to you all. You would be astonished the many going to America. With my best wishes for all friends, Joseph Raynes Back My respect to Mr. (?) and hopes he is better. I hope you are all very well and do not make yourselves uncomfortable about me as I know how to take care of myself. Donít you doubt [?] me. I shall always be able to make my way (?) this (?) and at last be brought to another and a better (?) so fair you well. ----------------------------------------------------------------------

Letter 2

Baltimore, July 6, 1831 My father and mother, brothers and sisters Aunt and Uncle. It is a pleasure to me I have the opportunity of writing of my arriving to Baltimore in good health and spirits. I left Liverpool May 14 by the brig Russian. Captain Ryder. I went in the cabin. It cost me twelve pounds. I was very glad I went in the cabin as there is a feeling which universally pervades landsmen and landswomen when they first embark on an element to which they are strangers. I had not been on the sea more than two days before I under the painful operation for the weeks. Those who go under the operation is cleaned the body and prepare them for the change of climate. After I had been on the sea three weeks I began to recover so that I could amuse myself. I had various sorts of amusements. My brother passengers had a good stack of books and so had the Captain as I amused myself with reading. Also with fishing. We caught a very fine porpose. A porpose is a species of a wale. We also caught a large quantity of mackerels. We caught some dogfish. They are about two feet long. They have horns on their backs two inches long. You may think it strange I amused myself by shooting [?] birds while crossing the Atlantic Ocean. They were two gents and one lady in the cabin. The captain indulged us with everything that his cabin would afford [?] and with the different stories I herd. The time passed away very fast. We had a voyage of six weeks. We had a very pleasant voyage but we had had winds which made the passage longer. The little Russian plowed over about seven or eight thousand miles before we arrived in Baltimore when we were on the great bank of Newfoundland it was very could we ware then about three hundred miles from Newfoundland we had contrary winds which drove us about three hundred miles from the (??) we came back to Nova Scotia about four hundred miles from Baltimore we the entered into the into Chesapeake bay we had the pleasure of seeing land on both sides of the bay we had calm in the bay for two days one of the other gents and myself we prevailed on the captain to let down the boat for us to go in the woods the captains with us the first objects I had in view was two beautiful horses. They were very great [?]. I went up to them. We went on further we saw two Negroes. They were loading a case [?] with tobacco. They led us to a house which was the planters. We have to go through the woods for two miles. The soile appeared to me to be of a sandy, sandy nature. Some of the trees were very thick and very high. Part of the land appeared to me as if it had been cultivated and gown (?) wild again in the places they were thick trees cut down they were sawed about two feet from the earth they were decaying very fast when we got to the planters house we saw a lady of color. She very politely asked us in to take some refreshments. It was a pleasant situation they had a many very nice horses that sell for twelve pounds for in America would sell for twenty in England a cow that will sell for five pounds in America would sell for twelve in England We went about the farm and saw the slaves plowing with two horses English plows are of no use in America The lady [?] gave us some milk in some bottles and two bundles of cherries [?]. We bid her far well then we proceeded to the ship again with our prise (?). We arrived in Baltimore on June 26. We were all very glad to be on land again. It was Sunday when we landed. The captain took us that was in the cabin to a hotel that he goes to. The hotel keeper would not charge any thing [?] for our (?). I was at the hotel and one of the other gents which was a (?) from Ireland for two days I immediately employed by a saddler the morning after I arrived at Baltimore but I spent two days with that young gent looking about me. They are a many elligant [?] buildings in Baltimore two very handsome monuments are erected. One to the memory of Washington the other erected to the memory of those that fell at the battle at Cape Henry. Baltimore is a reagular [?] and well built city and very large as is contains 80,000 in habitants. Page 3 Now I will give you a description of my business [?] a saddler will earn 7-10 per week and board at one of the most respectable boarding houses for 14 [?]. A joiner will earn much the same (?). In short, all good merchants will earn much the same. There is plenty of employ for those that are industrious either for laboring men or tradesmen. A laborer will earn 4 per day. You understand me this is (?) many will have mansion [?] butter, soap, candles which is muh the same price as in England. Flower is cheaper. It is now five dollars per barrel. Some times it is as high as ten dollars. They is 106 pounds in a barrel and a dollar is 4 and 2 [?] English money. Beef mutton veal 4 lb. or eight sents and is as good (?) as they sell in any shop in London clothing is very dear Young gents they give as much as twenty pounds for a (?) of close cut all the people (?) very gay in America and wear the best superfine cloth. Any sort of cotton is very cheap [?]. I will not encourage neither can I discourage any one to come to America but I must give to you to understand that America is subject to extreme heat and extreme cold. Under such extremes some people will feel great (?)illness and not agree with there constitution under such circumstances I cannot write anyone to come to America. I must say I never enjoyed better health then I do all this time. Indeed I look much better than I did when I was at Bonsall [?] and I feel settled in life so far as the situation. I am now pleased in I have to tell you I have began business for myself. I have been very fortunate by going to a very respectable boarding house as they was in England. Gent at the same house the name Hancock from Sheffield. He is in the hardware business. He is some distant relation to Mr. Hancock of Coulgrove that married Mr. Hobson relation to (?). He is a stanch friend to me. He tould me thay was a shop to let opposite the Indien [?] Hotel. The situation is as good as any in the town. He tould me he new the gent that had the letting of it and if I wish to commence he would go to is friend to see how much he would let it for he came back and tould me fifty dollars. I directly went to the gent and took it and commenced business for myself. My time is very short in being in Baltimore but I have got a many friends from Mr. Hancock recommendation [?]. Thay is some very fine saddlerís shops in Baltimore. My shop is about the size of Mr. Wallís of Worksworth [?]. I have only the as thay is no house belonging to it. I am very comfortable at my boardinghouse. Harvey [?] the young gent, is at the same boarding house that came in the Russian. They is a clergyman also and five more gents. I am very much respected. They pay great attention to my welfare as I hope you will not make yourselves unhappy about me. I made a very handsome saddle and bridle for a gent last week as I hope to get a comfortable living and save money as a young tradesman when they are sturdy and industrious they meet with good encouragement in America. Back I like America because a man may obtain a living by industry. If I was at Bonsall again I would take the same step I have done. I must tell you the Americans thay are a very industrious enterprising people. Trades people have they shops open as soon as its light in a morning and dark at night. No person must not think of coming to America to live to be drunken and (?) for such people is thought no more of then an Irish haymaker in England. I must conclude now and bid you all farewell. I hope mother does not make herself unhappy about me. I hope father is satisfied. I am in a land of plenty. I hope sister Ann and Harriet may it be in my power to afford you every comfort that his world can afford. I suppose comb making takes up Jacobís time as he as no time as he is no time to look after (?) and as Benjamin has a young family he thinks of nothing but getting moneys. Tell Mr. Frost [?] I often wish he could come and have a (?) with me. I must conclude with my respects to you all and all who enquire of me. Thay is many fine churches and chappels in Baltimore. Maryland is a slave state. One-fourth of the people in Baltimore are people of color. Our servant is a black woman likewise the boy. Most people have black servants in Baltimore. I shall write to Mr. Lindsay soon and so am intimate friend that wished to car of my welfare you must write to me as soon as you can make it convenient. Last Sunday I herd a black man preach. I cannot send you any amount of the interior of America as I have not been two miles away of Baltimore. I hope you will excuse my letter as I wrote it in haste as the (?) (?) is going to New York. I have the opportunity of sending as it may be some before I could send from Baltimore. ---------------------------------------------------------------------

Letter 3

Baltimore February 4, 1832 Dear Father and Mother Brother and Sisters Aunt and Uncle, Having not received a letter from you I have my doubts weather you have received the letter I wrote to you about my arrival in Baltimore. I left Liverpool May (?) with a favorable breas and bade farewell to my native country and all its endearments. I will give you a short account of my voyage. If my paper was large enough it would be a very interesting one. After I had been at sea a few days I began to be very sick and was sick for some time but being a cabin passenger I had everything that the captain's cabin would afford. Thay are a young gent from Ireland and a gent and is laiday. We were all merry together and the six weeks we were at sea passed away pleasant and had a very pleasant voyage but had contrary winds which made the voyage longer about seven hundred miles from Baltimore we had a calm for two days. Mr. Harvey and me we prevailed on the captain to let down the long boat for us to go in the woods. The captain went with us as soon as I went in the wood I saw two young horses. I went up to them thay ware very quick we went one mile further and saw three colored men. The captain them whear the planter lived. They told us it was about at three miles of the captain asked them if the family was at home one of the slaves answered yes massar day are all at home we had half an hour gossip with them and then bade them farewell. The land that was (?) about the wood was planted with tobacco but at length we got to the planters' whear we met with kind treatment after gratifying our curiosity we returned to the little big again and with favourable breas we sailed away again and in a few days we arrived at the Port of Baltimore. The captain took Mr. Harvey Esq. [?] and me to the hotel. He went to Mr. Harvey and me we spent two days in seeing the beauties of Baltimore. I will now give you a description if Baltimore. It is a regular well built city. It contains eighty thousand inhabitants. Ten thousand of them are people of color. Many fine buildings are erected at Baltimore many fine churches. Christ Church and Saint Paulís are elegant but the Cathedral is a heavy clumsy building. W fine white marble monument erected in memory of General Washington another erected in memory of those who fell at the Battle of Cape Henry which is about three miles from Baltimore. Thay is many fine springs of water as good as any in England. How wild writing you a little about myself. I made one saddle for a saddler. When I was finished I was determined to begin for myself. I took a shop in a very promising part of the city of Baltimore after giving it a trial of two months. I did not do so well as I wished to do. I left it and took another in a different part of the city double the rent that I had before where I am now getting a respectable livelihood and I hope to save money any industrious may get a good livelihood in America but it is two often that lose when people come to this country thay expect great things without putting their shoulder to the wheel. That is a mistake with such people. I assure you people must work hard who come to America to get a livelihood and thay is another thing I will not forget to mention it is two often the case with such people to take the decanter in hand two often as it is the custom in this but the bar keeper and the carr keeper hand him over a glass and the decanter and the customer makes is (?) to is one liking. I work very hard myself. I have one journeyman at work. I pay him one pound sixteen shillings per week English money and when days are longer he will want more then that is name is Rose he comes from ?othel 14 miles from Nottingham. Joseph (?) drives coach for his wife's brother at ?othel he is in good ealth and is wife and child fi you will name it to any of the Daybanks [?] at Cromfon thay will forware it to is friends at ?othel. I have another man works for me I gave him eighteen shillings per week but he works peas work now. I don't employ him regularly. You see the difference in America etween a good workingman and in different one people are paid in this country according to their aility. I have got a nice little fellow as an apprentice. He came over in the same vessel I came in. (?) are very poor English people from Oxford. I pay his bord, cloth him send him to night school until he is twenty-one. He tells people he's very fond of Boss which is Mr. I want another apprentice. I am about (?) one is (?) one well off. If I take him I shall have a (?) with him. Tell Mr. Frost if I had his George I would make a saddler of him or Mr. Chadwick's oldest boy. Either of them would suit me. I have got a very nice shop. I pay 22-10 a year. This is English money I stated to you. I bord with an English gent. I pay him about 11 per week for my bord. I have (?) food three times a day and everything in season. A gent that I am (?) with he as offered me is gig and horse of any time when I wish to take a ride out. The (?) I make to him I give his harness a pull together with a (?) and the Yankees won't walk the Baltimore days [?] don't like to be late. Yankees they say it's the Boston people that are Yankees. Dear brothers as thay is a comb maker bord at the same house I (?) can send you the following prices of combs and shells in this country. Your combs long on the back (?) 4-10 American horns reach to (?) them one with another as thay come from the hide Spanish horns 11 to take them one with another the longest size tortoise shell come with three pieces. A 2-6 quilled side comes long 5-8 te pair best quality (?) shell in long the pair the price of shell east India shell 4-10 pound. Spanish (?) shell 3.10 per pound (?) (?) wages from 18-28 a (?) man will earn 27 per week 2-6 per day for making tortoiseshell side combs in 4 long 11 for making a day large back combs. The reason whell is so dear is this country is very (?) to be met with comb maker have not been more than half employed this winter in consequence of shell being so scarce comb makers have been (?) in this country as thay can make combs cheaper in America than thay can in England. I can buy anything in my line of business cheap in America as in England as it will not answer m purpose to send to England for anything (?) one had much cheaper I sell saddles at one pound two shillings in America like to pay everything as cheaper as they can and that tradesman that sells the cheapest gets the Yankey (?). I sell (?) at 4-6. I sell cart harness for 1-16. Bridle (?) harness ----------------------------------------------------------------------

Letter 4

Baltimore September ?, 1834 My Dear Father& Mother & Sisters Uncle& Aunt I received your long book for letter dated June 25th on the 25 of August posted at New York by Mr. Porter. I was overjoyed at seeing a letter from those I hold most dear. You judge my feelings on opening the letter to read the melancollyness it contain. I sympathize much with you in my being from you in such a trying hour by gods will be done in even stage of life we are in death we are ever in jeopardy and not an moment our own. Thay are but to say a days march before us at the call of the same voice we must all obey and who knows the hour that call may come. To prepare for that ought to be our constant study. I was very much grieved on hearing of my dear fathers illness but hope by this time you are all enjoying good health and the greatest happiness the world can bestow according to our misfortunes it is true the Almighty has visited us with a heavy hand but who are weówe are the work of his Hand & at his command it is a sin to murmer lest greater misfortunes befall us as the burden is never made to heavy for the bearer. I pray myself for fortitude to bear my part had I forseen what whould have happened I should not left my native land & willingly would I now Return if I did not see good prospects for Buesnefs I would like to return home having a good connection & buesnefs on the Inorefs [?] it would b the Extremity of folly to give up a prosperous business for I know not what as with my present prospects I hope in a few years to visit you all at Bonsall and have it in my power to afsist (assist) you and be a comfort to you. I hope yet to spend a many happy years with ou and not long from hence since las new years I have not had lefs than three jouramen [?] and sometimes four and five. I expect to employ more next year. Praise the Almighty I live and have my health. My poor little boy Frederick died last 21 October being ill a long time and cost me a deal of money but he was a good boy had he had good health he would have been very valuable to me by this time. I have had several since but have not been to my min (part of page missing). have meet with a good one now I hope at least to all appearance he his a much smarter boy tha any one I have (?) had he bords with his father and mother. I yet bord with Mr. Young and am very comfortable. Dear sisters you seemed to be alarmed about war in this country I have seen no danger at preasant in this country it is true we have had some disturbances in the South but nothing alarming as lends to war. I think we can agree with ourselves if an attempt is not made by aforeseen for there is no other appearance but peace. The President refuses to recharter the bank of the United States and has moved from thence the public money causing that Institution to (?) in there loans from the local banks and has caused several to close in this city Two banks and the Maryland savings Institution but I was very fortunate for one was my favourite bank I had intended to keep my banking account there but though the interest of a particular friend I moved my account to another bank which I think was verry lucky. I have enjoyed verry good health since I last wrote but I expect you heard by Mr.Fabberer from a letter sent to Mr. Smith of Southwell by Mr. Roose my foreman requesting Mr. Smith to forward to Derby a note to state that I was well and everything seemed prosperas with me he is still with me and in good health if you have any chance to send to Derby request Mrs. Fabberer to send a note to Mr. Smith Crown Hotel to inform him his sister Mr. Roose has had a verry severe illnefs (illness) but has we hope got the turn for the better and hope getting out of danger. You may assure her friends from me there has been nothing wanting in any shape of attendance in the case of her illness. Her children are both well. I hope you will give my warmest respects to all those kind hearted friends who have tended there and to my dear father and poor sister Grace and family hoping Providence will assist you all and double compensate all who has been interested in your assistance in such a trying time I feel much for my dear father (?) him I grieve much for him beg of him to be composed. I hope yet more to behold him on this side of the (?) ad get to be a comfort to you all tell my dear mother I am greatly distressed for her. My dear sisters love attend and comfort our dear parents I hope the Lord will give you grace and support you to as so, as it has pleased an all wise Providence to leave you as there only comfort in regard of attendance do to neglect them I would send you home handsome presents of anything I am in hopes in a short time to have a more favourable opportunity to send to you something I shall store up for you all on that side the Atlantic ocean could it of been order by our (?) maker for me to have been with you who in time of trouble judge the pain I was struck with an opening my letter at the top of my two dear brothers and on reflection the situation of my dear parents and family I meadeatly (immediately) made my will that will not shorten my days as I have chosen good and punctual [?] trustees. I hope dear sisters you all will do the same and as brother Benjamin son Jacob has hired more than his equel share I hope my father and uncle will consider. Dear sisters you ought to be remembered for the time you have been attending and comforting our near aged parents and I should hope thay will no so Deaer father and uncle I hope as an act of justice and Christianity you will leave my dear sisters well provided for as brothers children are both boys and pretty well left already you will leave all in your power to my sisters and myself of you think proper to leave a share to Benjamin children my sisters ought to have that for there life as I am yet but young and may yet have a family of my own at some date but there is no prospect of that at preasant it may not be in my power to as much for them and they will find but cool treatment from any one thay be any way dependent on which I hope you will consider from the years thay have toiled thay do not diserve to lay under any control at third age as for me I hope you likewise consider what expence I have ever been to you and what I have likewise had from your property. I hope you will consider me worthy of my full share with my sisters so I have been industrious and saving for many years as Benjamin youngest son is not left so well of as his brother when he is old enough to learn a trade I should like to take him and bring him up and so something handsome for him and make him equel with his brother in regard of property and education if it is the almighty will to spare his health and mine I should like to have him when he is about nine years of age so as I could send him to some good boarding school before he is fit for a trade I can easey send for him by any vefsel (vessel) sailing from here to Liverpool and have him put in the care of the captain he will be better care taken of than with any other person that might be coming to this country. The gentleman I have chosen as executor of my affairs in case of sudden death is a Catholic Priest (?) gentleman that is considered the most punctual and attentive to affairs of that kind both Protestants as well as his own church he makes no distinction as to that he permits and receives great quantities of property to and from all parts of Europe for sixteen years past he has had no (?) or mistake of any property intrusted in his care his name is the Read Alexius Joseph Elder at the samanary Baltimore if you have any fiends going to Liverpool call at Brown & Sons there he is well known as he always (?) through thire firm. Dear sisters I will now give you an estimate of my last will dated September 1834 when all my just debts are paid at my disease (decease) . I wish for the remainder of my property to be sold and with al my shares and claims of property coming to me from my Father Frances Raynes and Uncle Isaac Raynes of Bonsall in the county of Derby Europe to be equally shared between my two sisters Ann Raynes and Harriet Raynes at the discese of my Father and Mother to be at there disposal and never to be at the disposal of any husband of any one else without there consent. Give my respects to Mr. Marsh. I am glad Mr. Marsh is in good health my respects to enquiring friends. I hope you will let me have an answer to this as soon as you receive it as I shall be anxious to know how you all are in health. Back As yesterday it seems to me when with you I did live such days again. I never can see for them what would I give now pleasures past and troubles here in such a short a space. Two brothers gone I loved so dear and none to fill there place. Dear Friends, what of us there is left lets pray for peace and love tho of our brothers were beress [?]. Weíll meet in heaven above. Joseph Raynes For I am from my native home and all that I hold dear most willingly to you I would come my mind is always thire. But here a time I must remain how long I cannot say to you I hope to come again one look for Happy Day. Dear Father and mother sisters uncle and aunt I conclude with my best love to you all from your affectionate Joseph Raynes ----------------------------------------------------------------------

Letter 5

Baltimore March 4, 1835 My dear Father and Mother and Sisters Aunt and Uncle, It is long since I received the letter from you which contains the Mellencolly news of the accident of Brother Jacob and Benjamin. I wrote a letter in answer to it and I hope you have received it safe. I was in great hopes I should have received a letter from you before this date as I am anxious to hear if Father is better. I hope he is quite recovered by this time I hope my dear mother Is in perfect health I know dear father and mother it has been a great trial to us all but we ought not to complain as it was the will of the all wise and merciful Creator of all mankind I greave much for you indeed all of you it wants afford [?] me much pleasure if I was near you that is if I could had to your happiness in this world but I can tell you I (?) not forget you in my prayers and I am sure you do not forget me in your. I hope dear sister Ann you are in perfect health and endeavours [?] to bare the trials of this world with a Christian fortitude. I know you will at all times endeavour to make Father and Mother as comfortable as circumstances will (?). It would afford me much pleasure if it was in my power to send you a present that would had to your means of making every comfort to our dear aged parents. Dear sisters I hope you will not think me unkind or ungenerous to you. It is my utmost wish to realize something that will be the means of you living independent of the (?) of the world. Since I wrote you last I have enlarged my establishment which requires more capital. I have employed four workmen all winter and I have one boy he was brought to me last January. I think I sent you word in my last letter that my boy Fredrick died in October 21 the same month brothers died. He was a great help to me you will be surprised at me living the life of a bachelor as I have rented the house and shop all together I have plenty of room to look for myself and to sleep in my house not only that I consider it much safer as thay is a set of evil disposed men going about burning peopleís property the same as in England when I left a building was set fire to and burnt down that cost sixty thousand dollars and a few days after the courthouse fire was set fire to and burnt down. It was a noble building and the pride of the city and many other (?) as well last week thay was a livery stable burnt down thay was four of the firemen died and several others verry much hurt in consequence of a wall fawling upon them. I was at the (?) last Friday. Our troop was (?) on that day. I have got part of my stock insured. I insured one thousand dollars my stock is worth saving a part if a fire should take place I am always kept very busy at work and dear sisters I hope with my (?) and industry it will be in my power Page 2 to compensate you for your kind attention to Father and mother and uncle and aunt. Business as been verry well this winter then it is general and money verry scarce but I look forward to as a merry time business this spring it has been a verry hard winter with us the river is frozen up at this time I should like to know If Grace is willing to let her son Isaac come to this country for me to educate and to give him a trade. I should like to take him when he is about (?) years of age or sooner if his mother would let him come to this country. I suppose they are grown two fine boys I will do all that lays in my power for them both I hope I shall be spared to do so dear sister Harriet I verry often think of you and hope you are now enjoying the best of health I hope you wonít forget me in your prayers as I verry often think of you in mine. I hope you will not neglect writing as soon as you receive this. I wish you to write often. Let no opportunity slip as I often wonder how you manage with the cows and the land. let me advise you not to gibe up the two Hill sides at the sale bottom as I think thay are so handy for you and by no means give up ----------------------------------------------------------------------

Letter 6

Baltimore April 13, 1835 Dear Father and Mother I wrote this letter on the Early part of March. I neglected sending sending it thinking I should have an answer from you before this time a gentleman called to se me at my store last week. He and tell me is name but in the hurry of business I forgot in but Mr. Clag can tell you who he is as he was acquainted with Mr. Clags Aunt at Matlock and knew by brothers he is about to return to England verry soon he is now at New York He told me he should return to Baltimore again and business and that he would call to see me the next visit. If he calls on me I will endeavour to sent you my likeness [?] by him which I am sure you will much praise. Thank God I have enjoyed the best of Health since I have been in this country. Back I am verry busy at this time ad I work verry hard. I [?] with my love to you all from your affectionate son and bother, Joseph Raynes. 1835 this letter was sent of 13 of March 1835. Read it. 13 of May ----------------------------------------------------------------------

Letter 7

Baltimore May 14, 1835 My dear Father and Mothere sisters Uncle and Aunt, It is with a feeling with great pleasure I have this opportunity of writing by my friend Mr. Hancock, the first gentleman I became acquainted with at Baltimore he as been living at New York for some time and as returned to Baltimore on a visit for a short time he called to see me this morning I was verry much pleased to see him. Mr. Hancock was verry much interested for my welfare when I first arrived at Baltimore that is to say in introducing me in the ways and customs of this country. My dear Father and mother, It is four years today since I left Liverpool I can assure you I have made the best use of my time and money as far as circumstances would adjust but I hope I shall make better progress this next four years so as I shall have it in my power Page 2 be some assistance to you all I would send you some money at this time if it was in my power to assist you in paying the expences of my late brothers. It as been a great trial to me and to all of us but thay are gone and at peace with their maker. I hope and trust that my dear Father and Mother will be composed on their account as it was the will of th all wise and mercyfull creator of all mankind and thay you my dear sisters for your troubles of this world with a Christian fortitude Donít be dissatisfide [?] at the being so far from you as I hope it is for a good and wise purpose I am all ways left verry busy and I work verry hard I have made money since I have been in business. It is my wish as soon as I have some money to spair out of my business and that will be about nine months from this date if it pleases God to spare my health to do so I shall send you it in this way send you a check of Exchange and as soon as you receive it take it to the bank at Wirksworth and as soon as they have an answer from the Page 3 Time [?] the check is drawn on you will get the money without any difficulty Mr. Hancock will do me the favour to (?) this letter himself. You will have an opportunity of hearing by him how I am situated and how I conduct by business. As he knows my concerns he will tell you how much comfortable I should be providing sister Ann or sister Harriet was with me to keep house for me. My dear sisters it is my wish to provide for you to add to our means so that you can live independent of the (?) of this world. I can tell you dear sisters. I have had to labour under many disadvantages that you know not to establish mself as I have done notwithstanding that I feel conscious to be a comfort to you and to my late brothers children if Grace will let me have the youngest boy Isaac I will send him to some good boarding school and give him a trade if he should fancy my business which is as good as most other trades if we are both spared it may be the means of me visiting you at Bonsall as soon as I have made him fit for business Mr. Evins [?] is the gentlemanís name I mentioned in my last letter I sent you word I would send you my portrait by him but I cannot well spare the money to have it done at this time not only that it would not be dry enough to send as he will set out for to sail to England next month Page 4 I sent to you in my last letter not to give up the two hill sides as I think they will be as handy for you to put the cows in I hope this will find Father and Mother and you all in perfect health as I am myself give my kind respects to Mr. and Mrs. Frost [?] and family and enquiring friends I often think of my Richmond Friends I am sure Mr. Chapman will be very attention to your affairs at Richmond I hope you will lose no time in writing as I am conscious to know how Father and Mother is and all of you. I remain our affectionate Joseph Raynes. P.S. Mr. Hancock will be on a visit at Bakewell and will go forward to (?) at that time he will visit you at Bonsall and stay a few nights with you if he as time to spare he will be much please with the (?) part of my native home from your to Joseph Raynes. I in close you a lock of my hair and one ten cents pease and one five cent pease. ----------------------------------------------------------------------

Letter 8

Baltimore March 24, 1836 My dear Father and mother Sisters Uncle and Aunt, I hope you will excuse not answering you letter sooner. Your last letter I received was dated soon after the arrival of Mr. Hancock. I am much obliged to him for handing to you the letter I sent by him I must tell you I am enjoying the best of health and spirits indeed you never see me look so well as I do at this time I thank heaven for the blessings bestowed on me and my God grant is blessings especially to those I have to many times offered my petition my (?) aged Father and Mother and Sisters Uncle and Aunt, the orphan, My dear friends let us leave my dear departed brothers in the hands of the Most High who his great and merciful to all mankind. It is with a feeling of great pleasure that I have to inform you that I have changed my situation in life to one more (?) then myself I did intend writing to you last Christmas the reason why I did not do to I had a prospect in view and I have now brought my mind (?) on the business that is I am about to move from Baltimore to St. Louis in Missouri. I am acquainted with a gentleman at St. Louis of the name of Amos from Baltimore he is carrying on the (?) business in the city of St. Louis. My reason is for moving from Baltimore since the banks failed in Baltimore. Confidence is lost consequently makes money scarce and great competition they was a (?) Riot in Baltimore last August on account of the banks which as been a great injury to Baltimore is was reportd they was not less then fifteen people shot dead and about forty wounded the amount of property damaged (?) the mob was not less than fifty thousand dollars. They is a great number of respectable families moving (?) to the western country this spring and if it pleases God to spare my health and my dear wifeís we shall go two on the First or second week of April next. My dear sisters you sent me word in your last letter I received wrote soon after M. Hancock handed to you the letter I sent by him that they was a small share of my late brother Jacobís money coming to me. My dear sister Ann I will make you a present of the half of that which is coming to me by my late brother Jacob and my dear sister Harriet I will make you a present of the other half of course Father and Mother will require the interest as long as they lie it is my dear wifeís wish I should do so. I hope my dear Father and Uncle will secure Ann and Harriet with my share of property as long as they live as it is far from my wish to deprive them of even one shilling of my Fathers or Uncles property because I am sure they are deserving of being well provided Page 3 for and I hope that kind feeling my dear parents and sisters will at all times attend to the happiness and welfare of all of us I hope you will not despair of ever seeing me again. I hope I shall in a fewe years be able to take a trip to Bonsall They are Building (?) at New York to sail from New York to Liverpool in twelve days. I hope you are all enjoying the best of health I was verry much pleased that my dear aged father has recovered is well as go down (?) with Mr. Hancock. My dear sisters I hope you will pay every attention to my dear father and Mother Uncle and Aunt my late brother Benjamin boys must be grown two fine boys. I hope Grace continues to do well. If I should take a trip to Bonsall in a few years I hope she will consent for me to have her little boy Isaac. I wish I had him at this time. I intend writing to you soon after I arrive at St. Louis as I hope you will make yourselves quite satisfied concerning my adventures through life I have not seen Mr. Bohman I should have been much pleased to have seen him ad as I am about going to the city of St. Louis so not expect to see him at Baltimore you will have no (?) to write to me until you receive another letter from me and that shall not be long. First asking (?)leave they as been a very severe winter this winter and as King Phillip of France as agreed to pay the money now to the United States. Thay is no danger of war between the two Kingdoms with my love to you and may health and happiness attend all of you with my respects to enquiring friends from you affectionate Joseph Raynes ----------------------------------------------------------------------

Letter 9

Page 1 Cincinnati June 2 1838 My Dear Father & Mother Sisters Uncle & Aunt
I hope you will excuse me not answering your letter sooner I have been waiting expecting a Gentleman going to England as he would favour me by taking those books safe but it is now uncertain if he goes to England for some time. My Dear Sister I will send you the books the first opportunity my sisters Ann & Harriet I am often thinking of you and offer my Prayers to Almighty God to defend & protect you through all your difficulties I am verry sorry your money was not deposited in safer hands get all you can & don't let it trouble you you will get through the world with oute it if I had been in England Mr Chapman would not have trifled with you in the trifling manner in which he did Every one of the Raynes family depended on Mr Chapman acting the Part of Justice if I had been in England at the time Mr Chapman was acting the Rascal with you you should have sued Mr Topham & have made him Paid the money or given security, I am very much obliged to Mr Mills for the favours & kindness he has favoured you with I hope you have let the other Part of the mill by this time you did not send me word if you disposed of my late brothers machinery & working tools I ham verry glad you mannage verry well with your farming Business I often think of my aged Parants & Uncle & Aunt I am verry sorry Uncle as had so severe attact of the Influenzy I hope you all are now enjoying the best of health at this time I thank God Mrs Raynes and myself is enjoyinn the Best of Health I think you never see me look better I am doing verry Page 2 verry well in Business at Cincinnati considering the dullness of the times, I yet confine myself to a small business I am now employing two journeymen I have one aprentice I shall take a nother as soon as as times gets better I work verry hard myself as I allways did the Banks are not paying Specie for their own notes yet & its uncertain when thay will do praps not untill next Spring which causes great derangement in the Currency, I had the great pleasure of having a Verbal Intercourse with Mr John Burton & Miss Jane Burton thay stayed but a few hours at Cincinnati Miss Jane Burton took breakfast with me & Mrs Raynes, she tould me I had a nice Lady for my wife I took Miss Burton to see St Pauls Church & other fine buildings she thought Cincinnati a verry fine city she observed of the streets being wide & reagular & of the shops being verry hansome & as fine & fashionable as in any town in England she tould me she would like to live at Cincinnati, where Mr John Burton & Mr Robert Burton is living is fifteen hundred miles from Cincinnati a Gent tould me Mr Robert Burton was worth twenty thousand pounds if not more they have a steam boat running from Cincinnati to Galleaner Captain Robert Burton tould me the boat cost them building about five thousand pounds the steam boats are constructed so as thay carry a great deal of frieght and many passengers As Mr Robert Burton son Robert which is Captain of the boat he was married to a Lady at Cincinnati a few months ago If I had one of my late brothers boys I would raise him to my business its no more for one of them to leave their Mother than for me to leve mine My dear sisters The Revd Mr Johns our worthy minister lent me one of his books to read the title of it was Page 3 The Rise & Progress of Religion in the Soul by Philip Doddridge DD since I commenced writing this letter I have seen Captain Robert Burton he tould me that is Aunt Jane was married on the beginning of last month to a gentleman of the name of Bonsall he is a native of Yorkshire he as been in America aboute four years he is in the smelting business at Galena I told her when I saw her at Cincinnati that she would soon get married in America, Mr & Mrs Bonsall is going to reside aboute twenty miles from Mr John Burton Mr John & Thomas Burton is engaged in the smelting business at Dubuque that is about twenty miles from Galena Captain Robert Burton tould me to send is love to his Grandmother & to all is Bonsall Friends one of the Mr Morliges call to see me last (I am verry much pleased you have such a worthy minister at Bonsall) week they have a nice farm a bout seven miles from Cincinnati Old Mr Morligues is still living Mr & Mrs Orange & me & Mrs Raynes has an invitation to go oute & spend the day at Mr Morliges we all intend driving oute in a carriage togeather in a few weeks the youngest of the Miss Morliges died aboute a year ago, Mr Orange that is Mrs Berresford daughter Elizebeth was confined of a fine boy about two months a go Mr Orange is a good customer of mine he bought a bout twenty pounds worth of saddlery of me week before last Mr samuel Berresford is a verry good customer since I have been at Cincinnati I have sould more than Fifty pounds worth of saddlery to people from Baltimore that was customers to me at that city Mrs Beresford is seventy four years of age she was at my house last week she says she thinks so much of me because I came from Parwich we had a Grand Consert of Sacred Musick at St Pauls Church last week to assist in defraying the expense of the organ Mrs Raynes & me was there I paid nine shillings of English money for two ticketts I wished you had been with me you would Page 4 have been quite delighted I have now some good news to send you I see in the Paper to day the Panks are now in in a prospers way for paying specie now we shall soon have good times in America I see in the Papers the young Queen will be crouned this month, give my kind respect to Mrs Flint & to Mrs Batement & Mr Frost & family Give my respects to Mrs Burton & tell her I beleve Jane has got a verry good husband My respects to Mrs Marsh & family & to my Bonsall friends I hope you will write as soon as you can as I am anxious to know how you all are I suppose the boys are grown fine boys by this time if I had them here I could do better for them than Grace can do for them at Bonsall Give my Respects to Grace I must now conclude Friday evening June 8 Past nine tomorrow is the day the Bonsall Club People march my dear sisters you must keep up your spirits & you most write to me as soon as you can can make it conveanent I will Promise you I will not delay writing so long the next time Mrs Raynes joins with me in love to you all I remain my dear sisters & parants your affectionate Joseph Raynes -----------------------------------------------------------------------

Letter 10

Cincinnati September 14, 1840 My Dear Mother and sisters and Uncle and Aunt, Your welcome letter came to hand April 14th dated July 19, 1840. My dear sisters it affords me great pleasure you are enjoying good health as my dear wife and myself is enjoying the same blessing. You will be very much pleased to hear it. I often think of my poor afflicted mother and uncle and aunt and Mrs. FlintóMy dear sisters I am satisfied you will pay every attention to them that lays in your power. Mother wished to know if I had any children. We have no little Rayneses. I have got a verry nice sharp woman for my wife. She does everything to make me comfortable and to assist me in my business. Mrs. Raynes often says if she had Jacob with us he should have every comfort this world can afford. Indeed I wish to have him with us as I think in about another year if all is well with us I shall have an opportunity of sending for him. It would be a pit if I should die and not have one of them to take my business. I am very comfortable situated and get a good share of business We shall do a good business after the elections at Cincinnati. They always is a great panic in the money market before the elections and it is so now the elections will be over and Christmas and then I expect we shall have General W. Harrison for President in place of Mr. Martin Van Buren. General W. Harrison promises to give us a better currency for that reason I shall vote for him if I live. You say how high flower is in England. You will never have a large loaf of bread for a little money in England until the corn law is repealed. The Americans think a great deal of Queen Victoria they think she is a very good woman from what I read. Page 2 In the English papers they is a a great deal of (?) in England. I wrote a short letter to you last April. I sent it by a Mr. Tearn [?] of Derby about two weeks before I received yours. I am very glad you have settled all my late brothers business it as been a great trial to you. I hope my dear sisters you will keep up your spirits under all your afflictions the Lord knows all things and to his will we must submit. I was very much grieved to hear of the death of Mr. Marsh. Tell Mrs. Marsh I sympathize very much with her. I could not avoid shedding tears when I read of is death in my letter give my kind respects to Mrs. Burton and tell her I have not seen any of her family since I wrote last but I have herd by a gentleman thay are all well. I believe Jane as got a very good husband and doing very well. I have been expecting John at my house ever since last May but he (?) is (? at St. Louis this summer. As now I do not expect to see him at Cincinnati until next spring. Tell Mrs. Dosey I have not seen her son Jacob at Cincinnati since I wrote last. He told be he should go and settle at (?) whereas Mr. Robert Burton is living if he could sell his place near Philadelphia but I think he is not sold it. He would have call to have seen me if he had. Mr. William Tomison he is living at (?). I received a letter from him a few weeks ago. He wished me to send is kind respects to is Bonsall friends. He is in the glass business. He bought a farm about a year ago. He as got two fine children, a boy and girl. Give my kind respects to Uncle and Aunt and that I hope they have a good tenant for the house. I would think they would soon get a good tenant because they rent it so low I think twelve pounds per year was the rent. My dear sisters, I hope you have had a better harvest this summer then you ha last. We had a very fine spring and a very fine summer. Thay has been crops with an abundance. Thay is plenty of fine peaches in market at about five shilling per bushel. I wish you was hear with us to have some of them. Page 3 I am very much surprised at Mrs. Manfield consenting to go to (?) land it is a very fine country but I think she will not like to live in such a new country. All kinds of provisions is very low with us and of a good quality. My dear sisters let me now acquaint you with the custom in this country among the Wesleyan Methodist they have got very good churches and very large ones. One Methodist Church in this city will hold three thousand people but let me tell you they hould camp meeting once a year. Mrs. Raynes and myself was at one about three weeks ago. Thay was about fifteen thousand people there. I never saw such a quantity of people at a place of worship before. It was held about seven miles from the city in the woods the Methodist stay and camp out about seven days and nights. We took a ride out on the Sunday thay was five sermons preached on that day you may think it was a very disorderly place but thay was as much order kept as if it was in a place of worship in the city I thought of my poor old Father if he had been living how delighted he would have been if he had been with us. My dear sisters I have heard Mr. Johns our minister at the (?) church preach on the coming of Christ. Mr. Johns is a very good man and a great scholar and great orator. I am sure you would be delighted to walk to Church with us to hear him preach. Tell Jacob and Isaac thay must be good boys and that I was bery much pleased with the specimen of Jacobís writing. Tell them both if (?) thay shall both have trades. My dear sister Harriet you must not think me unkind in not sending you the Fineyís revival lectures. Finey is a Methodist preacher and he as change is sentiments since he wrote that work. A preacher told told me is work was not Orthodox. Thay is not one I believe in this city at any bookstore. It was quite a favour that I got Mr. Haslyok to take one. The other one and it is troubling Mr. Haslugh because he as got so many patterns to take in is trunk in is own buiness. Back Mary Raynes on the hill and John Houldbrouch and wife are all living. I expect tell Mr. Houldbrook I have worn out those night cups he gave me. Give my respects to them. Tell widow Massey tobacco is very cheap in this country. They is very large fields covered with it and is a beautiful plants. Give my kind respects to Mr. and Mrs. Frost and family and Mr. Chadwick and Mrs. Batemey (?) and enquiring friends at Bonsall gibe my kind respects to Grace and tell her I hope the boys will go regular to school. Is Mr. Harding living. Give my kind respects to Robert and (?). I almost forgot to send you word Mrs. Raynes as took a poor orphan girl to raise. She is six years of age and she calls me father and Mrs. Raynes mother. She goes to school. The hymn book are much the same as those in England in the Parcel we use the English common prayer book the psalms are some of them a little different we do not use a separate hymn book in our church . I remain my dear sisters you ever affectionate brother. I conclude with Mr. Raynes Kind regard to you all. Give my love to mother and uncle and aunt and except the prayers from your affectionate brother Joseph Raynes. ----------------------------------------------------------------------

Letter 11

Cincinnati July 24, 1843 Mr. Ward: Dear Sir, You will please excuse me not answering your letter sooner which I should have done but I have been waiting expecting I should be able to send you some Bonsall news as Mr. John (?) left Cincinnati on the first day of May last to see his friends in England. He would see my sisters at Bonsall. He sent one newspaper to signify his safe arrival in England. I was very sorry you were so much indisposed as to require a sea voyage and allow the melancholy news your letter contained which is a great grief to me. I was very much pleased my dear sisters were enjoying good health and I hope the next time Providence will bar them up under all their afflictions. Mr. Morledge will return to Cincinnati this fall. I have sent for one of my nephews. I expect that he will bring Jacob with him. Dear Sir, As you are on a visit for the benefit of your health I shall be very much pleased if you will come and make a stay with us as Mrs. R and myself will be very much pleased to entertain you as I think a trip down the Ohio river and a visit at Cincinnati may add very much in recovering our health. Please write if it will be agreeable for you to visit our (?) city. I remain with my sincere regard, Joseph Raynes ----------------------------------------------------------------------

Letter 12

Wednesday, July 14, 1849 My dear cousin, We were extremely sorry to hear of the death of your dear brother. The ways of Providence seem very mysterious and you do appear to have had many bereavements now for some years pastóbut you must bear in mind that the Lord is kind in all his ways when most they seem severe he frowns and (?) kind rebukes hat we may learn his fear. If he was a Christian and I think there was no doubt he is only transplanted from earth to the even we have ----------------------------------------------------------------------

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